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北京论坛2017:中非发展合作的新趋势(一)

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 北京论坛2017:中非发展合作的新趋势(一)

 Beijing Forum 2017:Emerging trends in Sino-African Development Cooperation

2017年11月3日下午,北京论坛(2017)“中非发展合作的新趋势”分论坛第一、二场讨论会在钓鱼台国宾馆八方苑四季厅举行。第一场的主题是“一带一路愿景与中非新型合作”,由北京大学李安山老师主持,共有四位学者发言。

 

首先,中国外交部非洲司的郭海燕参赞从总体上介绍了中非关系新内涵。她表示,非洲总体保持和平稳定的发展,中非关系进入合作共赢、共同发展的新时代。在中非“全面战略合作伙伴关系”、“五大支柱”、“十大合作计划”的框架下,中国与非洲在政治、经济、人文、和平安全以及国际事务协调方面进行了广泛交流与合作。“一带一路”在非洲的建设是机遇与挑战并存。中非经济互补性强,应坚持“共商、共建、共享”的原则,实现“一带一路”倡议带给中非人民带来的普惠成果。

 

国家卫计委国际合作司副司长冯勇为大家介绍了“一带一路”框架下中国的全球卫生政策。他从埃博拉病毒的爆发和中国的应对情况着手,结合中国共产党十九大报告中关于“中国特色社会主义新时期”的阐述,说明卫生合作将是中国未来发展的关键领域之一。冯司长介绍了中国积极参与全球公共卫生治理的几个主要方面:支持已有的国际公共卫生治理机制,主要是与世界卫生组织加强联系;在“一带一路”倡议下与多国开展关于公共卫生的合作;积极建设公共卫生合作机制,例如从2013年以来已召开三场中非公共卫生高级别会议;建设全球范围的卫生应急机制,中国已在非洲42个国家派遣医疗队,人数逾千人。最后,冯司长介绍了中国的基本公共卫生战略,包括聚焦国际卫生议题、呼吁公共卫生领域的发展与合作、突出“一带一路”倡议下关键合作的领域如全球卫生安全、能力建设、疾控支持、建立卫生产业等。

 

来自南苏丹的Awan Riak部长,他同时也是北京大学南南合作与发展学院的博士。他表示,现在许多非洲国家选择“向东看”,是因为在与中国的合作过程中它们看到了希望并收获了信心。然而,如果仔细观察,会发现还是有许多撒哈拉以南的国家面临着不少发展问题。困扰这些国家的是“资源诅咒”、设施联通、区域内极低的贸易水平以及不发达的科学技术。这些问题已经kunrao 非洲多年,如何摆脱这个困境,非洲国家希望能在中国身上找到启发。他回顾了中国改革开放与对外合作的历程,并认为中国提出“一带一路”倡议是改革开放思想的延续,会继续将中国带到更远、带到世界的各个角落。面对日新月异的变化,非洲应该学习中国这种与时俱进、开拓创新的精神。中国在有远见的领导人的带领下创造了经济奇迹,这种宏伟的历史将持续为全世界尤其是非洲提供学习的经验。

 

英国皇家国际事务研究所的Alex Vines博士,通过展示世界各国/地区开展有关非洲的峰会情况,说明非洲如何逐渐成为国际各力量试图争取的目标。Vines博士介绍,中国自2000年以来与非洲的合作明显加强——尤其体现在中非合作论坛的壮大——是因为从已有的对非峰会汲取了经验。中非合作论坛的发展也导致其他国家重新审视本国对非政策和战略。这是一种积极的信号,它反映出非洲正在从边缘位置逐渐往更有权力的方向迈进。非洲因此有更大的选择自由和话语权,这其实也是国际社会乐于看见的——非洲可以自己当家作主。现在不同国家都提出了连结世界的构想,包括中国的“一带一路”倡议、印度和日本的“亚非增长走廊”等。从长远来看,这些构想都会有利于非洲的发函,但是非洲如何在这些构想中寻找到自己的位置并从中获益,这需要非洲领导人具有卓越的战略思维。

 

最后,与会嘉宾就中国在非利益、中国对非经济援助方式、新冷战时期、非洲合作机制建设等问题进行热烈的讨论。

 

In  the afternoon of November 3rd, the first session of the panel “The Belt and the Road Initiative and China-African New Cooperation” was held at Bafang Garden,Diaoyutai State Guest House. All scholars focused on the topic of the Belt and the Road Initiative ans China-Africa Cooperation. They had an in-depth discussion on this point. Professor Li Anshan from Peking University School of International Studies chaired the session.


The first topic of this session was about on Belt and road and China-Africa New Cooperation.

The first presenter was Guo Hai Yan from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China. She first introduces China-Africa overall relationship and the importance of the relationship. She pointed out that Africa is stable and kept a steady development. China-Africa both enter into a new era of cooperation, based on common development. China has already realized a lot of project, such as the Nairobi-Mombasa rail as well as the Addis-Ababa rail. She pointed out that China and Africa have a comprehensive and strategic partnership, “the five pillars and 10 major’s cooperation plan on sectors such as the political cooperation, economic, cultural, peace and security. In the international affairs, China and Africa do also have great exchanges and cooperation areas.  On Belt and Road Initiative, there are certainly many opportunities as well as many challenges that are existing. China and Africa, both economies have strong complementarities. Both China and Africa should work together, discuss and sharing knowledge and expertise, and therefore there will be more opportunities for the Chinese as well as the African.

 

The second presenter was Feng Yong , who is a deputy director International Cooperation Department from the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China. He talked about “the Belt and Road Initiative and China-Africa New Cooperation”. He explained from the case of the Ebola disease; how China put a hand and helps fix the problem. He introduced China’s active role in participating in Global governance of public health in several aspects.  Health cooperation will be extremely important for China to the World. He mentioned the communist party 19th congress mentioning about the new era of China’s socialism with new characteristics. He explained that China is playing a greater role for global health emergency response mechanism. China has sent in 42 medical teams to Africa, more than one thousand people. China’s basic public health strategy focuses on international health issues, more importantly china focuses on the call made from the world health organization.  Under the initiative of the Belt and the Road, there is a call to cooperate more in the health sector. Countries should unite and strengthen cooperation in the health sector. To give an example, since 2013, China and Africa have already organized high level meeting in the area of health, to create an international organ for quick response.

 

The third speaker is Awan Riak, Doctoral Candidate Institute of South-South Cooperation and Development Peking University. He talked about “the Belt and Road Initiative and China-Africa New Cooperation”. He said that Today, many African countries are looking East towards China for economic and social development. The rise of these new hopes and aspirations come as a result of confidence of many African countries in partnership and cooperation with China. The remarks of President Robert Mugabe at the FOCAC Summit in Johannesburg in December 2015, in which I had a privilege to be a participant, were indeed very assertive and assuring. In his welcoming remarks, he referred to President Xi Jinping and said “Here is a man representing a country once called poor, a country which was never our colonizer. He is doing to us what we expected those who colonized us yesterday to do…we say he is a God-sent person”. He said that by examining generally the economies of many Sub-Saharan African countries, we find many challenges impeding their economic growth since the post-colonial periods. According to the United Nations (UN) records of the 50 Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in the world, 34 countries are from the Sub-Sahara Africa (One World Nations Online). As such, the continent has been associated for many decades with underdevelopment, backwardness, poverty, diseases, high illiteracy rates, corruptions, conflicts and civil wars. However, the rise of China to be one of the global economic super powers and its offers of cooperation with Africa seem to have procreated new hopes among many African countries. But this miraculous advancement of China did not just come as a mere miracle. We all know that it came as a result of the visionary leaderships of the founding Fathers of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the culture of hard work of the Chinese people.

 

The fourth speaker is Alex Vines, from Chattam House, the royal institute of international affairs. He spoke about his paper which title the Belt the Road initiative and China-African New Cooperation. From his introduction of his his paper ,He examines how particularly the China-Africa Summit (FOCAC) was a watershed for Africa’s international relations in the 21st century. China’s Africa engagement is evolving and his paper also examines the extension of its One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative to Africa and the mirrored response this has also triggered from India and Japan. in his analysis, he concluded that his paper has shown how China’s increased engagement in Africa since 2000 has capitalised on learning from past initiatives such as those by Japan (TICAD especially). It has also resulted in forcing other nations to think more deeply about Africa and its strategic value to their interests. This is a positive development and is part of a normalisation of international relations where Africa demonstrates greater agency. The reality is nevertheless that Africa has more freedom and choice than ever before. Money is available - if African countries can guarantee their own stability and economic openness. Far from trying to control it, the world wants Africa to control itself. The answer lies in Africa's own hands but there is also increased competition and African leadership will need to be more strategic and focused on what it wants from these relationships. There are clear lessons for Africans on how to navigate the competing offers in this changing world such as China’s OBOR initiative and Indian and Japan’s AAGC equivalent. Potentially they could both provide win-win for Africa’s longer term developmental needs.

 

文稿未经发言人审阅。供稿人:北京大学国际关系学院博士候选人 达乌德、 罗楠