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北京论坛2017:中非发展合作的新趋势(七)

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 北京论坛2017:中非发展合作的新趋势(七)

 Beijing Forum 2017:Emerging trends in Sino-African Development Cooperation

2017年11月5日上午,“中非发展合作的新趋势”分论坛第七场在北京大学斯坦福中心举行。第七场讨论以圆桌对话的形式展开,主题为“中非合作的前景:基于、创新与挑战”。对话由北京大学非洲研究中心秘书长刘海方教授主持,共有7位对话人发言。

 

第一位发言人是北京大学国际关系学院副院长王逸舟教授,他的发言聚焦于如何将其经典概念“创造性介入”应用在中非合作中。随着中国在海外资产和国际利益增加,中国更加积极参加联合国的维和行动。相应地,安全议题也逐渐成为中非关系非常重要的议题之一,包括如何在维护和平与安全、增强非盟整体执行能力等方面加强合作。中国海外利益的增长事实要求中国在非洲各地增加军事投入。吉布提、埃塞俄比亚等多个非洲国家的实践已反映出这种中非合作内容的变化。针对这种转变,中国需要思考的是如何正确、和平地运用军事力量,既维护中国海外利益,又要获得非洲当地的理解与支持,坚持不干涉内政的原则。王教授认为维和行动必须要在联合国的框架下执行,是对合理运用军事力量的制度保证。中国要避免走传统西方国家为了保护本国利益而过分使用武力的老路。

 

第二位发言人是来自耶鲁大学的Malte Lierl教授,他尝试回应王逸舟教授的讲话,并提到了中非分论坛在第一天有关“非洲是否存在新冷战时期”的讨论。Lierl教授提醒,中国在吉布提建立军事基地,这势必会触动也在附近有军事基地的美国和法国的神经。各国在非洲的活动不仅仅是有关应对海盗等非传统安全,更加有其战略含义。因此大国在非洲建立自己的军事据点,这很容易给人造成一种冷战随时爆发的感觉。这点是中国必须要注意并考虑的。

 

第三位是来自瑞士伯尔尼大学的Clarence Mandlenkosi Siziba博士。Siziba博士重点研究非洲贸易与冲突之间的关系。他介绍了在吉布提的中国经济特区,并认为中国在吉布提建立贸易区具有战略重要性。吉布提曾经一度是美国和法国军事主导之地,但是2000年以来中国在吉布提的存在逐渐上升。尽管存在许多对中国在吉投资的批评意见,但是吉布提政府对中国的投资充满期望。当多数目光都聚集于中国在吉布提的军事战略上时,Siziba博士的发言展示了该国在经济发展层面之于中国的意义。

 

第四位发言人——北京大学国际关系学院助理教授刘莲莲——着重探讨了中国在海外利益的保护以及中国与非洲之间的司法保护合作问题。非洲犯罪情况仍是一个较为严重的问题,甚至影响到中国在非的利益,如财产和华侨安全。因此,中国在与非洲进行司法合作中承担了很大责任。刘老师列举了几个中非司法合作、引渡罪犯的案例。她指出,中非司法合作已经进入新阶段。曾经的合作内容是被动应对,具体问题具体分析;然而现在应该逐渐制度化和系统化,形成可复制的模式。最后,刘老师提出中菲司法合作中应该注意的几点:充分利用非洲在地优势;解决公平问题,平等配置资源;合法性问题,要注意不同地方对司法公正的不同定义。

 

第五位是来自埃塞俄比亚的Dilamo Otore Ferenje先生,他从民众需求的角度论证了中非合作的必要性。他认为,非洲国家有要改变治理和发展现状的需求,而这种需求应该来自草根大众,而不是领导阶层。正是因为埃塞俄比亚民众有这种发展需求,才会引入中国投资,因此中非合作并不是中方政府强加。中国有丰富的资源和发展经验,如果非洲国家要实现从农业到工业的转型,就应该与中国合作,这是正确的发展选择,也是双赢的发展选择。从内容来看,中非合作应该涵盖经济、社会、安全、外交、文化等多个维度、多个层面。与传统西方国家对非贸易方式不同,中国同非洲国家贸易从来不设先决条件,这是一种范式的转变。总之,中非合作一直是也将会是需求导向型,因为只有回应需求才能实现善治。

 

第六位是来自浙江师范大学的张巧文老师。她以南非为例,就负责任的投资、制度投资者和可持续发展发言。张老师通过考察金融机构投资者来探讨中国和南非投资合作中的可持续发展内涵。研究发现,在营造有利于培养企业社会责任的监督环境方面,南非比中国表现更为出色。然而双方的金融机构投资者都并没有有效引导企业进行负责任的投资。这项研究对于那些活动在中国-南非投资合作框架下的行为体(包括决策者、公司、金融机构投资者等)有一定的参考意义。

 

第七位是来自马达加斯加的Solphi Joli Hamelo先生。马达加斯加和中国的合作尚处于起步阶段,还没有重大合作项目。因此他希望能够到中国来寻找合作的可能契机。在众多讨论问题中,他强调了在知识交流方面的合作的重要性。

 

随后,参会嘉宾就中国如何平衡维护海外利益和坚持不干涉内政原则之间的平衡、中国如何与非洲不同区域的合作、中国如何在国际应急工作中发挥更大作用等问题做了充分讨论。

 

最后,由北京大学南南合作与发展学院学术院长傅军教授总结发言。他认为中非合作体现人类为实现和谐的理念所做出的现实的努力,并就此次中非分论坛谈了四点感想:第一,一带一路倡议是对世界经济公平、包容、可持续发展需求的呼应。中国的发展经验给其他发展中国家提供一种新的动能和更匹配的借鉴,因为彼此的发展阶段更接近。第二,成功的合作需要需求和供给互相匹配,这包括基础设施、机制和思想与知识三方面的互联互通。第三、从经济特区开始普及成功的经验是中国改革开放的一个特点,这种渐进式战略路径反映了将全球视野与当地条件相结合的求真务实的精神,并由此逐步从比较优势向竞争优势迈进。第四、有效的合作需要探索搭建相互学习的知识平台,不断攀登全球生产的价值链,应对日新月异的知识与科技发展。基于这四点感想,傅教授介绍了南南合作学院的课程体系,该学院旨在培养兼具全球视野和行动能力的人才。他同时强调,南南合作学院希望通过向南方国家的学生介绍中国发展经验,让他们学习一种理解发展问题的有效思维,而不是让这些国家对中国模式照抄照搬。发展的战略方向需要理论指导,但各国战略部署都必须因地制宜,符合国情。

 

In the Morning of November 5th, the fifth session of the panel was held at Stanford Center at Peking University”. All scholars focused on the topic of “Prospect of China-African Cooperation: Opportunities, Innovations and Challenges”. They had a roundtable discussion on this point. Professor  Liu Haifang, from Peking University chaired the session.

 

The first speaker is Wang YI ZHOU, Professor at Peking University School of international Studies. His speech focused on how to apply to the concept of “creative Involvement” in China Africa Cooperation. China’s investment abroad is increasing, as well as the Chinese participation into the UN peace mission is increasing. The subject of security is gaining importance in China-Africa cooperation. Including how to maintain peace and security, how to increase abilities for the African Union is also very important. Chinese overseas interest are increasing, this mean that in order to protect china’s interest, China should invest more on its military abroad. Jibouti, Ethiopia and other countries have changes the content of the China-Africa Cooperation. China has to avoid following western powers roots of exaggerating using military might, in order to protect its interest.

 

The second speaker is Professor Malte Lierl, from Yale University. He review Professor Wang Yizhou speech and added that if there was or not a form of cold war during the opening of China-Africa Forum. He said that China military Base in Djibouti is coexisting with the American military base and the French military base.  Although all these countries have in Africa are fighting against piracy, but they are also have other strategic objectives. Last, big powers have military base in Africa, this is easy for many to believe that there is a cold war on preparation. China should be careful about that.

 

The third speaker is DR.Clarence Mandlenkosi Siziba, from the University of Switzerland. he mentioned about Africa trade conflicts. He said that china’s creating economic zone in Djibouti is very strategic. Djibouti had only American and French military bases before. Up to the year 2000, China and Djibouti have increase bilateral relationship. Althought there were critics on china’s investment in Djibouti, but Djiboutian government considers china’s investment as very important.

 

The fourth speaker is an assistant of Professor Lian Lian, in the school of international relation, Peking University. He talked about how to protect the Chinese interest abroad and China-Africa judicial cooperation problems. The situation in some part of Africa can also influence china’s interest. For instance the problem of finance, protection of Chinese in Africa etc.  Therefore china and Africa have to cooperate more in the judicial sector, this is a huge responsibility. Today, china and Africa judicial cooperation is entering into a new stage. The is a system established and an organ. Last thing, professor said china and Africa judicial cooperation should pay attention to: doing the upmost to fair justice in Africa, equality, legitimacy. Also both should understand the differences between the two, in terms of definition etc.

 

The fifth speaker is Dr Dilamo Otore Ferenje. He spoke from the perspective of the people and analyses china Africa cooperation. He said Africa countries need to change in multi levels, and those changes are called from the people. Because Ethiopian people needed change that's why they got Chinese investment and it’s not china’s government forced to invest. he said if Africa countries want to industrialize , it needs to cooperate more with china, from all sectors , people ,security , foreign policy, culture etc.

 

The sixth speaker is Qiaowen Zhang School of Economic and Business Management & China Africa International Business School, Zhejiang Normal University. She said that The 6th FOCAC brings the China-Africa investment cooperation to a higher level. Given that increasing attention is paid to sustainable development and that responsible investment gains a lot of momentum in financial markets, this study explores the sustainable development of China-South Africa investment cooperation from the perspective of institutional investors. We observe that South Africa has developed a good regulatory environment for responsible investment where companies engage in responsible investment practices much more actively than their counterparts in China. Nonetheless, institutional investors, both in South Africa and China, are not found to be effective in leading firms towards acting in a more responsible way. Consistent with conventional wisdom, they are only observed effective in promoting financial performance.

 

The last speaker is Professor Fu Jun, from Peking University school of South South cooperation. He said that china and Africa cooperation is the result of the efforts to achieve harmony. From the perspective of China-Africa cooperation, there are 4 points: the first is the demand needed of the society from the belt the road initiative. China development can provide some experience on that. Second, the need to match the supply and demand, which is the infrastructure demand etc. third, economic zones are china’s experiences; this has changed the logic of economics. The last is, we shall create a platform for dialogue and exchange, in order to face the new development in the world terms of technology and skills.

 

文稿未经发言人审阅。供稿人:北京大学国际关系学院博士候选人 达乌德、 罗楠