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北京论坛2017:中非发展合作的新趋势(六)

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 北京论坛2017:中非发展合作的新趋势(六)

 Beijing Forum 2017:Emerging trends in Sino-African Development Cooperation

2017年11月4日下午,“中非发展合作的新趋势”分论坛第六场讨论会“教育合作:形式、影响和挑战”在北京大学斯坦福中心举行。第六场分论坛由北京大学的哈巍教授主持。4位学者围绕中非教育合作问题展开讨论。

 

第一位发言人是来自尼日利亚的奥巴费米-阿沃洛沃大学的Femi Mimiko教授,他的发言题目是《中非高等教育合作及其对国家发展的影响:尼日利亚案例研究》。他认为,中非高等教育合作有利于改善非洲经济发展困境,因此要持续推进中非高等教育合作。然而,目前的合作忽略了非政府的、人文面向的力量,而这些力量对文化交流来说至关重要。中国基于政府、产业、大学三方间的相互作用关系的三螺旋(Triple Helix)创新模式值得非洲学习。中国已经表达了加强与非洲高校合作的意愿,并且强调了非洲机构的重要性。

 

第二位发言人是来自耶鲁大学的Ning Rundong,他的报告旨在探讨“孔子学院志愿者在非洲国家所面临的困境”。 Ning介绍了中国国际志愿者的基本情况,并从微观层面具体展示了中国志愿者在非洲的生活情形以及与当地人接触交流的情况。中国志愿者作为个体,大都非常愿意深入当地帮助非洲人。但是中国对非洲印象误区,形成了阻碍志愿者深入非洲当地的社会原因。

 

第三位发言人高莉莉教授来自天津职业技术师范大学,她就“一带一路倡议下非洲孔子学院面临的机遇和挑战”进行发言报告。非洲是我国“一带一路”建设的重要方向和落脚点,随着“一带一路”倡议与非洲的对接,越来越多的中资企业作为中非经贸合作的实施主体走进非洲,为非洲发展提供了重要的推动力,也为非洲人力资源提供了广阔的就业和发展空间。“一带一路”倡议和中资企业在非洲落地生根为非洲孔子学院提供了新的发展机遇。2017年非洲孔子学院联席会议上,职业技术培训以及孔子学院和中资机构的合作作为会议的重要议题引发热烈讨论。综观目前非洲孔院的办学基础,48所孔子学院中仅有1所孔院的外方承办单位是职业技术学院,其余47所孔院均建立在所在国家较为知名的综合性大学或是高等教育机构。综合性大学的办学理念与职业技术学校差异明显,如何立足中外方承办单位实际,找准发力点,有针对性地做好人才培养,最大化满足企业对本土人才的需求,提高孔院的社会服务能力是非洲孔院在“一带一路”推进过程中需要着力思考和解决的重要问题。基于多年的基层孔院办学实践摸索,报告认为非洲孔子学院服务“一带一路”能力的提升需要立足孔院办学实际,整合优势资源力量,可以通过依托中外方承办单位的优势,加强与当地职业技术学校的合作,加强与当地企业的合作等方式有针对性地做好人才培养,最大化满足企业对本土人才的需求。

 

第四位发言的是北京大学非洲研究中心主任李安山教授,他的发言主题是“非洲华人的宗教生活”。李教授的研究反驳了一般认为在非洲的华人没有什么信仰的看法。李教授回顾了华人接触非洲、并在非洲扎根发展的悠长历史,并考察了几个华人聚集的地区:毛里求斯、马达加斯加、留尼汪、南非。他重点描述了华人的几个主要宗教信仰:基督教、中华传统信仰和佛教。通过对在非华人的主要宗教信仰的分析,李教授展示了宗教信仰和文化价值如何紧密联系和相互融合。

 

On the afternoon of November 4th, the sixth session of the panel was held at Stanford Center at Peking University”. All scholars focused on the topic of  “Education cooperation: Modalities,Impacts and Challenges”. They had an in-depth discussion on this point. Ha Wei, from Peking University chaired the session.

 

The first speaker is Nahzeem Oluwafemi Mimiko. Professor of political science from the Nigerian University of Obafemi Awolowo . He spoke about the “Dimensions of Sino-African Cooperation in higher Education and its impact on National Development: A Case study of Nigeria. His key points are  the first is that the general framework of Sino-African collaboration revolves around attenuating the acute infrastructural deficit on the continent, thus implying that higher education is not prioritized. Secondly, collaboration between China and Africa on higher education tends to marginalize non-state, person to person contacts and engagements, which ordinarily constitute the main arena for exchange of the finer elements of culture. Thirdly, China’s framework for effecting collaboration among government, university and industry provides an adaptable template for Nigeria in the latter’s sustained efforts at reforming its universities and establishing an orientation for innovation and entrepreneurship for them.

 

The second speaker is rundong Ning , from the department of anthropology ,Yale University. He talked about Good people, bad societies: interpreting the dilemmas of volunteers of Confucius institute in an African country.  In recent years, overseas program has grown in China, just by clicking Baidu, you will see many of oversees program. They get good hospitalities in local society and local people. These volunteers are enthusiastic for helping others; they search for intimate friendship and rapport with others also the pursuit of personal growth. Chinese volunteers are willing to know better people and to integrate. There is a contradiction in African societies that exist, between the kind and the dangerous. Africa is not a dangerous area and people should try to interact more with local people in order to avoid this type of image. He mentioned some quotes from different teachers; it says” when I teach my student, I don’t treat them differently; I treat them on equal basis”.  The contact between china and Africa is not only about big projects but also a contact between people to people relationship, sharing knowledge and experience.

 

The third speaker is Gao Lili, from Tianing University of Technology and Education. she talked about the “opportunities and challenges of African Confucius Institutes under the Belt and Road Initiative”. She said that African continent is an important foothold of Belt and Road Initiative. With the implementation of the new strategy, more and more Chinese enterprises arrived in Africa. They not only work as a powerful driving force to African economy but also provide lots of job opportunities to local human resources. Belt and Road initiative and the arrival of Chinese enterprises bring about new opportunities to the development of African Confucius Institutes. In the 2017 joint conference of It is known that the mission of a comprehensive university is different from that of a TVET Institute. Therefore, how to exert the advantages of the host universities and maximize the role of CI in serving the demand for the local skilled human resources is a big challenge that the African CIs have to handle seriously in the new background of ‘Belt and Road Initiative”. To improve African CIs’ capacity in serving the social demand, some practical suggestions are given such as exerting the full advantages of different stakeholders, exploring the cooperation potentials between CI and the local TVET colleges, further enhancing the cooperation between CI and local Chinese Enterprises, etc.

 

The last speaker is Prof Li Anshan, Director Center for African Studies Peking University. His topic is about “an analysis on the overseas Chinese Religion Awareness in Africa”.  He talked about the Chinese Navigator Zheng He in East Africa. After World War II, there were four places that Chinese concentrate, Mauritius, Madagascar, South Africa, Reunion. There were reasons to converse into Christianity, example the establishment of Chinese churches, efforts of Chinese priests in the 1950s etc. there are a lot of creoles family in Mauritius, Reunion, Madagascar. Pragmatism was also a key for conversion, in order to create relationship with locals, entering schools etc. the temple of Guan Di is established in Mauritius as well as Reunion. From the Chinese, there is an emphasis in the harmony between human and nature and the relations among human beings, belief in family roots etc. in conclusion, he said that various religions co-exist among Chinese immigrants in Africa, religious belief closely linking with cultural values etc.

 

文稿未经发言人审阅。供稿人:北京大学国际关系学院博士候选人 达乌德、 罗楠