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北京论坛2017:中非发展合作的新趋势(五)

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 北京论坛2017:中非发展合作的新趋势(五)

 Beijing Forum 2017:Emerging trends in Sino-African Development Cooperation

2017年11月4日下午,“中非发展合作的新趋势”分论坛第五场讨论会“新型国际发展合作:双边、三边与多边创新”在北京大学斯坦福中心举行。第五场分论坛由耶鲁大学的Malte Lierl教授主持,共有4位学者进行发言。

 

来自荷兰的奈梅亨大学的Haley Swedlund教授首先就“中国是否损害了传统捐助者在非洲的能力”作报告。Swedlund教授的研究是基于针对活跃在非洲多国的捐助国高级官员的问卷调查,以及中国在加纳、乌干达和坦桑尼亚这三个国家的活动研究。Swedlund教授发现,认为中国增强在非参与度和中非发展合作会导致“静悄悄的革命”这种说法是夸大其词。在受访的捐助国高级官员当中,鲜有人认为中国削弱了援助国在非影响力。相反,在加纳、乌干达、坦桑尼亚的案例证明传统发展援助国家依然发挥着重要作用,中国实际上很少与这些援助国发生直接竞争。然而,有两点重要走向值得关注。第一,当中国和传统援助国发生直接竞争(主要在基建项目上)时,许多非洲政府会倾向于选择中国的援助。第二,考虑到中国在非洲逐渐扩大的市场利益和资源需求,非洲在获得中国高额融资时会减少对援助的依赖性。从这个程度来说,尽管中国的资金到来和非洲传统捐助国能力降低不是因果关系,但具有一定相关性。

 

联合国西非和萨赫勒办事处安全部门改革官员Mpako Foaleng博士探讨了“促进中国、美国与非洲利益攸关方的三方合作”的可能性。随着中非经贸关系加强,中国要更多地考虑到海外资产安全、侨报保护等问题,中国近年来也加大了对和平与安全的投入力度。这意味着,中国和美国在安全问题上有着越来越多的重合。Foaleng博士举了两个例子说明中美与非洲探索三方合作的可能:中美在南苏丹探寻共同利益,如海上安全、非法捕鱼等领域。此外,尼日利亚、乍得等具有战略意义的重要国家也有同步实现经济与安全的诉求,这为中美合作提供机会。Foaleng博士总结道,中美非三方合作仍面临许多挑战,主要是如何解决中美之间的信任问题。我们需要产出更多的研究和分析,找到共同利益和重点领域,并得出相应的可行方案。

 

来自华中师范大学的Damazela Thamsanqa发言聚焦“非洲通过中国模式重新构建发展愿景”。在传统西方发展理论中,有两个核心要素:民主制度与自由化。然而,中国却走出了一条不同于西方理论的发展道路。在中国的发展脉络中,国家发挥着重要作用,外资企业对国内发展的影响有限。长期以来,非洲国家依赖西方援助并且必须遵循西方发展理念,而结果不尽人意。随着世界经济重心从欧美向亚太转移,西方国家关于非洲发展的理论逐渐式微。随着中国在新世纪对非投资与日俱增,中国发展模式更加吸引非洲中国。非洲国家试图通过中国的发展模式重新发现自己的发展道路。这种转变也导致西方国家不得不重新审视对非发展战略,因为非洲大陆已不再是西方大国上演独角戏的舞台。

 

麻省大学波士顿分校的Adugna Lemi做了题为“贸易援助与非洲贸易表现:比较中国与经合组织(OECD)”的报告。此研究探讨了对非贸易和对非贸易援助之间的关系本质。通过数据分析,研究发现贸易援助的资金流带动了非洲对OECD国家进出口的资金流,但是对非洲进口的影响明显高于出口。而中国在非的援助贸易影响不大,在中国对非贸易中占比很小,而且很大程度上取决于非洲国家的基建条件和经济规模,因此有人提出“中国来非洲只为了做生意”的说法。报告人因此提出,非洲国家应该在援助与贸易之间发挥平衡者的作用。而且非洲决策者不仅要关注资金问题,更要考虑如何通过合适方式利用资金转化为能力建设。

 

最后,参会嘉宾对加强中非关系的必要性、多方合作中的权力转移和竞争问题、角色分配问题、援助主体多样性和受援非洲国家差异性等话题进行充分的讨论。

 

On the afternoon of November 4th, the fifth session of the panel was held at Stanford Center at Peking University”. All scholars focused on the topic of “New progress of international Development Cooperation: China’s bilateral, trilateral and multilateral approaches in Africa”. They had an in-depth discussion on this point. Malte Lierl , from Yale University chaired the session.

 

The first speaker is Haley J. Swedlund Assistant Professor, Centre for International Conflict Analysis and Management; Radboud University Nijmegen. She talked about “ is china eroding the bargaining power of traditional donors in Africa “. She quoted from a scholar that “African governments have won `policy space', or in plain English, the ability to make decisions to pursue their self-defined development objectives, not those of their donors, after decades of quasi-unilateral dependence on Western donors". Her research focus on case studies on Ghana, Uganda and Tanzania. Her key points are: China's engagement in these countries is far from new; Chinese official finance goes almost exclusively to (state-owned) Chinese companies; Chinese engagement has mainly been in the productive sectors, namely infrastructure, agriculture and mining; Figures on Chinese aid are prone to exaggeration.

 

The second speaker is Mpako Faoleng. From the United Nations Office in West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS), security reform Officer. She spokes about how China Africa can foster relation. For several decades, trades between Africa and China are growing. There is an enhance on security cooperation in Africa between China and Africa under FOCAC Framework.  Both the USA and China are facing similar challenges in terms of security. Are the USA and China going to find space for cooperation? China and USA both have different views regarding the cooperation with Africa.  Her focus is mainly to look at where cooperation could works, in the field of peace and security and humanitarian.  Although there is competition but there is as well a room for cooperation. In terms of Maritimes security, there should be architecture. Numbers of Chinese ships are involved in fishing in the gold of Guinea. That area is not that safe, and it need security. Trilateral collaboration is the key that can contribute to build that type of cooperation. African stake holder put a plan for trilateral cooperation. She had two points to conclude, there are ways for trilateral cooperation is possible and there is a need for trust between China-Africa and the USA.  There are lots of researches that have identified areas of possibilities, cooperation in order to bring up this trilateral cooperation possible.

  

The third speaker is Thamsanqa dangazela, from the Central China Normal University, School of Politics and International Studies. He pointed out that two key elements that have dominated the Western approach to development over the years are economic liberalization and democracy building. However, China, the leading emerging economy of the 21st century has not followed this path. The state still exercises broad economic control, and foreign ownership in domestic industries is usually limited to partnerships with Chinese firms. Until very recently in Africa, many countries had no choice but to adhere to Western development plans or else monetary aid would not be forth coming. China’s spectacular economic success, vast foreign currency reserves and increasingly comfortable role as an emerging economic powerhouse has meant that it has not shield away from engaging in the developing world, particular in its quest to secure natural resources. China has invested heavily in Africa ever since the turn of the new millennium. Delving deeper into the various approaches being used by China becomes imperative in as much as knowing how the Western Nations are adjusting and adapting the developmental approaches in Africa as they are no longer the sole players.

 

The last speaker is adugna Lemi, from Department of Economics University of Massachusetts Boston, MA. He talked about Aid for Trade and Africa’s Trade performance: A comparative perspective from China and OECD. His content was on , Aid-for Trade initiative, literature and theoretical backgroung, the contribution of the study , the methodology,data and data description and lastly, the conclusion and the implications. The WTO has defined Aid for Trade as such , it is about assisting developing countries to increase exports of goods and services, to integrate into the multilateral trading system, and to benefit from liberalized trade and increased market access. He said that Aid for trade flow allocated to ‘trade facilitation’ (for simplification and harmonization of customs procedures) had unintended effects both from Africa and donors interest point of view. Unlike Africa’s interest, aid for ‘trade facilitation’ had a negative and significant effect on Africa’s exports to OECD countries. The results for the case of AfT from China are weak, but suggest that Chinese AfT flows to Africa have played little role in Africa’s trade with China. For China’s trade with Africa, the results show that infrastructure and economic size of African countries are more important (China is in Africa for Business). Although both the infrastructure, and production capacity channels played a role, aid for trade education and training played a bigger role for Africa. Aid for trade facilitation had no effect.

 

文稿未经发言人审阅。供稿人:北京大学国际关系学院博士候选人 达乌德、 罗楠