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北京论坛2017:中非发展合作的新趋势(四)

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 北京论坛2017:中非发展合作的新趋势(四)

 Beijing Forum 2017:Emerging trends in Sino-African Development Cooperation

2017年11月4日上午,“中非发展合作的新趋势”分论坛第四场讨论会“经济特区实践、农业现代化与工业化领域合作——非洲动力的视角”在北京大学斯坦福中心举行。第四场分论坛由北京大学的Awan Andrew Gual Riak博士主持,共有4位学者发言。

 

来自美国明尼苏达大学的Ding Fei做了题为《埃塞俄比亚东方工业园的技能发展:以当地劳动力为视角》的报告。通过对埃塞俄比亚东方工业园工人进行访谈和问卷调查,研究得出一些埃塞俄比亚当地劳工最关注的一些问题,包括:工作岗位的供应、工作的稳定性和工资问题。而在埃塞俄比亚东方工业园的中国企业也同样面临一系列有关劳工问题,如劳动力流动过快、高级劳动力供不应求等问题。通过考察双方的应对策略,研究认为中资企业和非洲当地劳工之间处于相互学习、相互适应的动态关系,这种关系尽管美中不足,但整体趋好。

 

来自坦桑尼亚达累斯萨拉姆大学的Hezron Makundi博士做了有关《中国队坦桑尼亚的技术参与:坦桑尼亚政府的主事权》的报告。报告试图探讨坦桑尼亚政府在与中国合作的发展项目中是否具有话事权的问题。在过去数十年的研究中,坦桑尼亚政府机构都被认为在与中国合作过程中表现软弱和被动。而报告人的研究则挑战了这种成见,他发现坦桑尼亚从政府到个人都在通过谈判努力争取包括提升国家工业水平和技术能力在内的各种利益。在过去,非洲国家对中方投资和援助的知识内化效率很低,而坦桑尼亚新总统的上台和他的强力反腐政策有望改善这个问题。然而,如何处理好中方企业重要性逐渐下降和当地私人行为体日益积极之间的关系,要求决策者必须要寻找有利于企业间技术溢出的政策创新。

 

来自中南屋(China House)的殷子欣女士做了题为《肯尼亚中国企业与技能培训非政府组织的对话与合作:在非中资企业劳工问题新思路》。殷女士的研究考察了中非之间的人文交流方式,从而思考当今在非中资企业充满争议的劳工问题。研究采访了在非25家中资企业的56位工作人员,并观察了7家当地职业培训的非政府组织,认为中资企业与当地职业培训NGO加强互动与对话能为问题解决提供新思路。通过定量和定性相结合的研究方法,报告考察了中资企业开展劳工培训的内生需要以及当地职业培训NGO的能力和局限性。报告认为,中资企业和当地职业培训NGO和合作将有利于改善雇佣关系,提升当地人力资源积累。

 

Christina Seyfried是来自耶鲁大学的博士生,她的报告题目是《中国融资活动与非洲的结构转型、国家合法性与发展:来自埃塞俄比亚和尼日利亚的经验》。她的研究试图回答,中国在撒哈拉以南的投资如何影响非洲国家的结构转型、政府合法性和长期发展前景。Seyfried从产业发展、经济特区两个角度说明产业转型的问题。她认为工业部门发挥的作用还很有限,而农业和一些非正式产业对人们的吸引力更大;而经济特区也在非洲地区呈现不均衡的发展。国家合法性方面,虽然非洲政府官员认为与中国开展经济合作、促进经济增长会有利于增强政府合法性,但是事实并非如此,因为官员们并没有解决经济增长所带来的问题,同时忽略了与民生切实有关的问题。最后,Seyfried提到在埃塞俄比亚发生的一些因发展矛盾而激发的暴力游行现象,认为这是非洲政府在促进经济发展时必须注意到的社会反应。

随后,参会嘉宾对劳工工作风险、“一带一路”与非洲政府发展政策的适应、民众对于经济发展意见的深层原因探讨进行提问和讨论。

 

Awan Andrew Gual Riak博士最后总结。他表示中国的经济特区发展模式非常重要,但是在非洲不同国家表现各异,但是所有政府都需要注重推动经济和社会的同步发展。他还强调了强有力的领导力在正确利用公共资源中的重要性。他认为经济特区固然应该成为帮助所有非洲国家经济腾飞的切入点,但更重要的是非洲国家要明确目标,坚定前行。

 

On the morning of November 4th, the fourth session of the panel was held at Stanford Center at Peking University”. All scholars focused on the topic of “African Agency perspective special economic zones, agriculture modernization and industrialization”. They had an in-depth discussion on this point. Tang Xiao yang from Peking University chaired the session.

 

The first presenter is Ding Fei, from the University of Minnesota. Spoke about the “skills development in the Eastern Industrial Zone of Ethiopia: a local labor perspective.  From a local labor perspective, there are a lot of concerns such the availability of finding a stable job. The working time etc. many Chinese companies have also their concerns, some locals job seekers do quite faster, because of the regulation of the companies. There is also the question of the relationship between the companies and the workers, sometimes it is good and sometimes is not good. In some parts of Ethiopia, Chinese companies can’t find a high skill labors, this also create a new problematic.  But the overall situation in terms of local labor perspective is improving.

 

The second was Hezron Makundi ,Ph.D candidate  from Dares-salaam University.  He spoke about the “negotiating technological capacity in the Chinese engagements: is the Tanzanian government in the driving seat”。 He said that in terms of negotiations, the government of Tanzania has done a lot in order to attract Chinese investors. For technology transfer, there is still limitation, China and Tanzania has developed a strategic framework to guide cooperation on industrial development.  There are certain projects that have been canceled , because government of Tanzania is entering in a phase of mass investigations. Therefore there are certain projects that have been halted or delay.  Today, some Chinese companies are merging with other companies because they want to enhance their qualities.

 

Third speaker, zixin yin, from China House, she talked about “Dialogue between Chinese companies in Kenya and Local vocational training NGOs: new outlook on Chinese labor controversies in Africa. Her paper explores the approach of people-to-people exchanges in order to have a new outlook on the controversial employment relations of Chinese companies in Africa. Based on the semi-structured interviews with 56 interviewees in 25 Chinese enterprises and participant observations with 7 local vocational training NGOs, this paper proposes cooperation between Chinese companies and local NGO training providers through interactive social dialogues. In a combined qualitative and quantitative analysis adopting the data reduction technique, three matches are suggested after identifying the heterogeneous needs of Chinese employers and NGO’s training capacities and challenges. Based on the fieldwork observations in Kenya and combined quantitative and qualitative analysis, we confirmed the hypothesis that there is no official social network between Chinese companies and Kenyan vocational training NGOs. Yet the potential for social exchanges and cooperation can be developed after identifying the pragmatic needs of Chinese companies. Three main trends were identified in that the SOEs and large POEs had the demand for realizing CSR goals and achieving positive social impacts. The Chinese private employers running micro- and small-sized business instead had lower level of CSR commitment but rather the practical needs for labor supply due to discontents with current workers. In the meantime, there was a potential market for supply of the qualified and trustworthy housekeepers for individual households.

 

The last speaker is Chrisitina Seyfried , Ph.D student, Yale University. She talked about the “impact of Chinese Financed Development Projects on political Development in Africa: a case study of Ethiopia.  Her argument is while local politician believes that they gain legitimacy by setting up deals with the Chinese , it is in fact their response or lack of response to the negative consequences arising from larger economic changes that determines their legitimacy. During her research , she discover that there  are resettlement in Addis Ababa that have led to a culture of mistrust. She also said that the state of emergency in Ethiopia can at least be partially be explained by Chinese development financing and the government’s material ability to expand construction. In Nigeria , protest in a similar context and smaller scale emerged in 2012 in the Ibeju-Lekki community over the Lekki Free Trade Zone project. However during the Q/A session, she was explained that the issue is not protesting against development, but rather protesting regarding their lives being shifted to another place.

 

文稿未经发言人审阅。供稿人:北京大学国际关系学院博士候选人 达乌德、 罗楠