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北京论坛2017:中非发展合作的新趋势(三)

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 北京论坛2017:中非发展合作的新趋势(三)

 Beijing Forum 2017:Emerging trends in Sino-African Development Cooperation

2017年11月4日上午,“中非发展合作的新趋势”分论坛第三场讨论会“经济特区、农业现代化与工业化领域合作——中国动力视角”在北京大学斯坦福中心举行。第三场分论坛由清华大学唐晓阳教授主持,共有5位学者发言。各位学者从各自研究角度对中非在经济特区、农业和工业领域的合作提出独到见解。

 

来自新加坡南洋理工大学的Ana Alves教授做了题为《中国在非洲的经贸合作区:一个可行的发展模式?》的报告。当非洲国家对于中国的发展经验兴奋不已、迫不及待地学习中国从经济发展到政治管理等各方面的模式时,Alves教授的研究展开了更为冷静的观察和思考。她认为中国发展模式作为一种外来样式,在直接移植到非洲的过程中会遇到许多困难。通过这项研究,Alves教授试图展示中国模式在多大程度上适用于非洲,以及影响这种程度的原因。中国在赞比亚、尼日利亚、埃塞俄比亚等国家的经贸合作区的案例说明,缺乏监管制度、薄弱的基础设施条件等问题都阻碍中国资本流入和中国发展模式的引入。

 

来自农业部对外经济合作中心的耿建忠老师做了有关“中非农业技术专业的生成机理与模式创新研究”的报告。报告表示,农业是非洲的基础产业,吸纳了绝大部分劳动力,在保障粮食安全、促进可持续发展、改善民生等方面具有重要意义,但非洲农业发展面临很多障碍,其中之一就是实用农业技术在非洲转移的有效性不足。非洲国家拥有充足的劳动力、土地等生产要素,而中国的小农户经营模式呈现出实用性和低成本的特点,有利于非洲国家更好地接受和吸收。近年来,通过援非农业技术示范中心、南南合作和企业投资等方式,中非农业技术转移取得了积极成效,但同时也暴露出一些问题,亟需开展深入系统研究。报告立足当前中非农业合作的战略机遇,着眼于中非农业技术转移的需求与问题,从非洲农业与技术转移本身出发,基于技术差距理论、诱致性技术创新理论和演化经济理论等,解析中非农业技术转移的生成机理;立足援非农业技术示范中心、南南合作与企业在非投资等实证案例,分析中非农业合作的新问题与新趋势,进而提出中非农业技术转移的创新模式及实施路径,为开放经济条件下中非农业技术转移政府和企业决策提供理论支持。

 

来自伦敦大学亚非学院的博士候选人李杭蔚做了题为《在非华人的结社:以赞比亚为例》的报告,研究对象是在非中国移民的组织化生活。报告以非洲国家赞比亚为例,报告人实地调研了生活、工作在该国的中国移民和企业。报告认为,中国移民对社团的广泛参与,让结社问题在中非关系(尤其是人文交流方面)发挥更加重要的作用;民间的自我管理社团通常建立在身份认同基础上;半官方性质的社团多为商业性社团以及关注其它领域的社团(如妇女问题、统一问题、文化交流等),这些社团与使馆保持着密切练习,并与中国国内的政治经济互动频繁;不论是民间社团还是半官方社团,都会参加由使馆发起的特殊政治和商业活动,并将海外华人与中国连结在一起。总的来说,结社为在非洲的华人和企业引入了一种初级的结构化生活秩序,对商业和个人都有益处。但报告者也注意到,华人社团普遍存在着内斗与可持续发展的问题,需要民间和使馆共同努力解决。

 

Yilak A. Kebede是来自哈佛设计研究生院的研究员,他的报告题目是《非正式技能开发、技术转移和中国在非洲基础设施建设中的作用:以埃塞俄比亚的建设为案例》。Yilak教授试图回答,埃塞俄比亚当地劳动力能否在中国公司完成建造工程并离开后继续维持并扩大建造能力,从而引出对非正式技能开发的讨论。非正式技能有其必要性,它能够提高建筑生产力,同时使得创造和消费手段都更为灵活。然而,非正式技能的传授仍然存在许多困难,例如语言转化的问题、技术的竞争力问题以及个体态度和文化差异导致各种误解问题。Yilak教授认为非洲当地政府、中国在地企业和学术界应该协力合作,从政策、资金和思维上为非正式技能的传播提供支持。

 

北京大学的刘海方教授做了题为《社团作为在非中国新移民的社会资本:以加纳、津巴布韦、坦桑和南非为例》的报告。刘教授通过研究中国新移民在加纳、津巴布韦、坦桑尼亚和南非的结社案例,发现中国新一代海外移民的活动方式有了很大转变。结社不仅仅是对内寻求原生族群的认同感和安全感,也成为对外与当地联系的重要纽带。针对有关海外华人的既有印象和观点,此研究提供了新的视角和可能,打开了在非洲华人社区的“黑匣子”。

 

最后,参会嘉宾集中对非洲经济特区、基础设施建设等方面问题进行提问和讨论。

 

On the morning of November 4th, the third session of the panel  was held at Stanford Center at Peking University” . All scholars focused on the topic of “China Dynamics perspective on special economic zones, agricultural modernization and industrial cooperation. They had an in-depth discussion on this point. Tang Xiao yang from Peking University chaired the session.

 

The first presenter was Ana Alves, she talked about “China’s Economic and Trade Cooperation Zones in Africa: A Viable Model of Development? ” . Based on her research, she said that possibility that the Chinese experience of development, reflected in its three decades of rapid economic growth and accompanying development achievements, can be copied by Africans has pre-occupied scholars and policy makers since the early 2000s. From Special Economic Zones and Agricultural Technical Demonstration Centres to better management of State Owned Enterprises and improved internal governing party discipline, the range of forms of technical policy transfer from China to Africa covers a diversity of topics and sectors of relevance to countries undergoing the transformative processes of development. Within Africa, the Chinese experience of industrialisation associated with the Special Economic Zones is especially appealing as a means of achieving rapid growth through the transfer of finances, technologies and management skills.

 

The second presenter was Geng Jianzhong , he spoke about the “formation Mechanism and model innovations analysis of Chinese agricultural technology transfer in Africa”. based on his research , he pointed out that Agriculture, employing the largest percent of active working population and playing important role in food security guarantee, supporting sustainable development and enhancing quality of life, is basic and strategic industry in Africa. However, it faces a large number of obstacles and one prominent factor is the poor conversion of available technologies into tangible benefits and impacts. African countries own plenty of working population and land, while China with smallholder production history, has agricultural technology, characterized by smallholder’s availability, practicability and cost efficiency, which can be well accepted and assimilated. In recent years, with agricultural technology demonstration center, south-south cooperation and company investment, there has been both active progress and problems, in agricultural technology transfer from China to Africa, which need to be analyzed systematically.

 

The third speaker was Yilak A Kebede, from Ethiopia. He talked about informal skill development, technology transfer and china’s role in Africa infrastructure development- a case of Ethiopia construction. The motivation for his presentation is that, historically Ethiopia was a country in war for construction; the Ethiopian has got the knowhow from the Italian. China has built a new railway. But there is a question, how Ethiopian is going to maintain the rail after the departure of Chinese. Before 1940, the construction in Ethiopia was not good and even up to now 2015; the construction hasn't change that much. Therefore Chinese has come to be a big investor in term of construction. Ethiopia needs informal skills because it is flexible.  There are many challenges identified, the language, the communication is very limited. There is also salary problem; most people believe that the salary is small.  Work attitude and culture, how informal skill could transfer.  He concludes by saying that there is a need for installation of certification and evaluation mechanism for various types of skills, promoting cultural and language trainings to Ethiopian as well as Chinese and lastly proper utilization of Ethiopian in China.

 

The fourth speaker was Li Hangwei , PhD candidate, SOAS, University of London. She spokes about “The Roles of Overseas Chinese Associations in Africa: The Case of Zambia”. She  brought into focus the organizational way of life of Chinese migrants in Africa–an aspect neglected in the previous China-Africa debate–in this paper. We argue that, beyond the realm of state actors (Chinese state-owned enterprises or SOEs, diplomatic corps, technical aid missions) and the realm of non-state actors (long-term migrants, traveling businessmen, and students), there exists a realm of associations encompassing most institutionalized and self-supporting Chinese migrants in Africa. These associations include not only independent associations and chambers of commerce, but also associations funded in part by Chinese SOEs and the Chinese State (in the form of government-organized NGOs, or GONGOs), as well as the occasional, thematic political mobilization at the embassy level. Interweaving their personal and commercial interests with these associations, Chinese migrants and enterprises are living a far more politicized life than those from other countries.

 

The last speaker is a Peking University professor , Dr. Liu Haifang . She spokes about the “association as social capital of New Chinese Migrants in Africa: empirical Investigation of Ghana, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and South Africa. From this field work, there are findings that points out that sizable Chinese community coming to Ghana started in 1960s and mainly they were from Hong kong and Taiwan to invest into their first textiles, ceramics later on cardboard ect. There are new concerns such as the emerging of human security which are caused or experienced by migration between China and Africa.  There are bonds that hold the Chinese community abroad together: kinship, geographical, religious, business and product relationship. There is so called the chinesiness , “the complex of homeland”. The historical experience that taught emigrants valuable skills for survival overseas and shaped the people who emigrated from it as a transformer of Chinese consciousness overseas.  The whole presentation brings a literature review on all those countries, of how the new Chinese community in these countries tries to reach out the local people. This kind of community build into these countries is a bridge for local people to exchange with Chinese.

 

文稿未经发言人审阅。供稿人:北京大学国际关系学院博士候选人 达乌德、 罗楠